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Duomo of Florence PDF Print
Da visitare - Monumenti da visitare
alt The Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore is the cathedral of Florence, overlooking the Piazza del Duomo.

This is the fifth largest church in Europe, after the Basilica of St. Peter, St. Paul's Cathedral in London, the Seville Cathedral and the Cathedral of Milan. It is long, in fact, 153 meters while the base of the dome is off 92 Florentine arms, approximately 54 meters. It has a peculiar plant, it is composed of a basilica with three naves body welded to a huge round triconca that support the immense Brunelleschi's Dome, the largest masonry dome ever built. Inside you can see the largest ever surface decorated with frescoes; 3600 square meters, carried out between 1572 to 1579 by Giorgio Vasari and Federico Zuccari.
The construction began on the ancient foundations of the church of Santa Reparata in 1296 by Arnolfo di Cambio, Giotto was continued from 1334 until his death in 1337. Francesco Talenti and Giovanni di Lapo Ghini continued in 1357. In 1412 the new cathedral was dedicated to Santa Maria del Fiore, and consecrated 25 March 1436 at the end of the work of Brunelleschi's dome by Pope Eugene IV.

Currently it is the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Florence.

The existing buildings

The current religious center of Florence in the Middle Ages was far from the center of gravity, having developed in the north-east of the ancient Roman circle. How typical of the early Christian churches were in fact developed, whether in Florentia, behind the walls and only in later centuries were incorporated into the city. The first cathedral of Florence was San Lorenzo, by the fourth century and later, perhaps in the seventh century, the title passed to Santa Reparata, the early church that is under the present cathedral, and that it was still outside the walls. In the Carolingian period, the square was a mixture of civil and religious power, the residence of Margrave next to the seat of a bishop, more or less under the current Archbishop's palace. Matilde di Canossa in 1078 promoted the construction of the ancient circle (as Dante called it), also incorporating Santa Reparata and the primitive form of the Baptistery of San Giovanni, dating from the fourth or fifth century.

At the end of the thirteenth century the Theatre Episcopalis, the Episcopal complex in Florence, presented a completely different spatial relationships. The current Piazza San Giovanni was little more than a widening of the Bishop's Palace and the Baptistery of San Giovanni, then the true focus of the complex, just completed in his attic and the roof marble octagonal pyramid. To the east, close to what was then called the Gates of Paradise, was the porch of the church of Santa Reparata, which had at the eastern end of a truly harmonious chorus with two bell towers.

In the north-east stood the ancient church of San Michele Visdomini, then moved further north, which was located on the same axis Cathedral-Baptistery, and the oldest "Hospital" Florence to the south stood the houses of the Canons, organized around a central cloister. The religious space acquitted, normal cone at the time, even civic functions, such as the appointment of knights, popular assemblies, reading the posts of authority, the consecration of the Baptist prisoner of war, etc..

Between the late thirteenth and early fourteenth century Florence lived a culmination of political and cultural flowering, which culminated in the creation of a new civic center linked to political power, then said Piazza della Signoria, and the construction of a new cathedral . Santa Reparata in fact, even ancient and venerable, was no longer adapted to the rapidly expanding city, rich and powerful, who had just settled his accounts with rival Siena (Battle of Colle Val d'Elsa, 1269) and imposed, even with difficulty, its hegemony in the chaotic arena of Tuscany. Santa Reparata was described by Villani as much as large and small in comparison to cities and yes made in the documents of the municipality as Cadente for extreme ages. In 1294 the city government finally decided on the reconstruction of the church large enough to overshadow the cathedral city rivals, including Pisa and Siena. The richness of the factory was, therefore, placed a special emphasis, in order to represent the icon of the city power.

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Thursday, 02 September 2010 |
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